Gramle Transcription

All the words in Gramle are English words produced by a male speaker of English from the MALD dataset (Tucker et al., 2019). Transcriptions are mostly phonemic and are based on a general American English dialect using the CMU-dictionary transcriptions. These have been converted into the International Phonetic Alphabet for the purposes of Gramle. The transcriptions include the alveolar tap /ɾ/ which is an allophonic variant of /t/ and /d/ in North American English.

If you are new to transcription and spectrograms there is a brief introduction to the transcription system below. To learn more about reading spectrograms you can check out Rob Hagiwara’s page on reading spectrograms.


SymbolVoice – Place – MannerKeywords
pvoiceless bilabial stoppie, sleepy, tip
bvoiced bilabial stopbuy, about, dab
tvoiceless alveolar stoptie, atop, pat
dvoiced alveolar stopdim, adore, lad
kvoiceless velar stopkill, locker, sack
gvoiced velar stopgill, logger, pig
ɾvoiced alveolar tapbutter, adder
fvoiceless labiodental fricativefill, coffee, if
vvoiced labiodental fricativevet, movie, stove
θvoiceless dental fricativething, ether, both
ðvoiced dental fricativethis,  either, breathe
svoiceless alveolar fricativesee, fussy, mess
zvoiced alveolar fricativezoo, maze, Oz
ʃvoiceless postalveolar fricativeshoe, bishop, ash
ʒvoiced postalveolar fricativeZsaZsa, azure, rouge
t͡ʃvoiceless postalveolar affricatechurch, hatchet
d͡ʒvoiceled postalveolar affricatejudge, badger
m(voiced) bilabial nasalmouse, amo, aim
n(voiced) alveolar nasalno, any, on
ŋ(voiced) velar nasal__, singer, wing
l(voiced) alveolar lateral (approximant)lousy, solo, bull
ɹ(voiced) retroflex approximantring, around, or
j(voiced) palatal approximantyell, union, __
w(voiced) labial-velar approximantwe, tower, __
hvoiceless glottal fricativehow, ahoy, __


i(tns) high front unroundedtea, see
ɪ(lax) high front unroundedtip, sing
e͡ɪ(tns) mid front unroundedpay, deign
ɛ(lax) mid front unroundedpet, head
æ(lax?) low front unroundedpat, dad
ɑ(tns) low back unroundedcalm, pot
o͡ʊ(tns) mid back roundedtoe, row
ʊ(lax) high back roundedput, foot
u(tns) high back roundedfood, prune
ʌ(lax) mid central unroundedbut, sung
ə (lax) mid central unrabove
a͡ɪ/a/ (tns) low central unroundedbuy, bite
a͡ʊ cow, house
ɔ͡ɪ/ɔ/ (tns) mid back roundedboy
ɝstressed rhoticized vowel bird, curry
ɚ unstressed rhoticized vowelbutter